(Dom St. Viktor)
Heiligenstatuen am Südportal des Doms Sankt Viktor
Saint's statues at the south portal of Saint Victor's Cathedral
Nine statues of Christ, Sts. Peter and Paul, the four evangelists, and two patron saints of the cathedral, St. Victor and St. Helena:
- Central, between the doors, is Christ as Judge of the World.
- St. Paulus / St. Paul, sanctvs pavlvs; with sword and book.
the Apostle, (c. 5 - c. 67 ), persecuted the early followers of Jesus before switching sides and seeking to join them. He was instrumental in creating the Christian Church. He is the protector of tent-makers, theologians and the ecclesiastical press and is depicted with a sword.
- St. Johannes Evangelist / St. John the Evangelist, iohanis...; with a chalice
conventional name for the author of the Gospel of John - considered to be the same person as John the Apostle
- St. Matthäus / St. Matthew, with book and angel's head.
one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus and one of the four Evangelists. His attribute is an angel. As patron saint of book-keepers, tax collectors and security forces, he is also depicted with writing utensils
- outside the portal: St. Viktor, with flag and shield.
martyr, according to tradition a Praefectus cohortis of a Cohort of the Theban Legion. He was executed in the 4th century in the amphitheater of Castra Vetera (Xanten) for refusing to sacrifice to the Roman gods (Wikipedia).
- St. Petrus / St. Peter; with book and key.
(possibly died AD 67), apostle, first pope; patron saint of locksmiths and confessors. Usually holding the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven in his hand
- St. Lukas / St. Luke; with book and bull's head.
one of the four Evangelists. His attribute is an ox or bull, usually having wings
- St. Markus / St. Mark; with book and lion's head.
one the four Evangelists. His attribute is a lion
- Outside the portal: St. Helena, with the cross. St. Helena is the second patroness of the cathedral.
(ca. 246/50 - 330), consort of Emperor Constantius, and mother of Emperor Constantine I. She is traditionally credited with finding the relics of the True Cross
The statues of Christ, St. Peter, St. Paul and St. John the Evangelist date from the 16th century, the others from 1870. The old statue are probably replicas.
The four Evangelists are Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Their versions of the life of Jesus - the Gospel - are included in the New Testament of the Bible. In art, these four evangelists are depicted since the fourth century not only in human forms, but also with symbols, inspired by the visions in the Bible book of Ezekiel 1 and Revelation 4. The Apostle John appears as an eagle, Luke as a bull, Mark as a lion and Matthew as an angel. This view, also called tetramorphe (from Greek: four forms), is probably of Syrian origin
In the earliest versions tetramorph was used as a symbol of the majesty of Christ, the human figure signifies the Incarnation, the bull Jesus' priesthood, the lion and the eagle the power of his divine grace. In the earliest representations of the tetramorph the four figures are arranged around the throne of Christ (Maiestas Domini) ( Catholic Netherlands).
Sources & Information
Locatie (N 51°39'43" - E 6°27'11") (Satellite view: Google Maps)
Item Code: denw185; Photograph: 1 May 2011
Of each statue we made photos from various angles and also detail photos of the various texts.
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© Website and photos: René & Peter van der Krogt
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